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table of contents

EXP(3P) | POSIX Programmer's Manual | EXP(3P) |

# PROLOG¶

This manual page is part of the POSIX Programmer's Manual. The Linux implementation of this interface may differ (consult the corresponding Linux manual page for details of Linux behavior), or the interface may not be implemented on Linux.

# NAME¶

exp, expf, expl — exponential function

# SYNOPSIS¶

#include <math.h>

double exp(doublex); float expf(floatx); long double expl(long doublex);

# DESCRIPTION¶

The functionality described on this reference page is aligned with the ISO C standard. Any conflict between the requirements described here and the ISO C standard is unintentional. This volume of POSIX.1‐2017 defers to the ISO C standard.

These functions shall compute the base-*e* exponential of
*x*.

An application wishing to check for error situations should set
*errno* to zero and call *feclearexcept*(FE_ALL_EXCEPT) before
calling these functions. On return, if *errno* is non-zero or
*fetestexcept*(FE_INVALID | FE_DIVBYZERO | FE_OVERFLOW | FE_UNDERFLOW)
is non-zero, an error has occurred.

# RETURN VALUE¶

Upon successful completion, these functions shall return the
exponential value of *x*.

If the correct value would cause overflow, a range error shall
occur and *exp*(), *expf*(), and *expl*() shall return the
value of the macro HUGE_VAL, HUGE_VALF, and HUGE_VALL, respectively.

If the correct value would cause underflow, and is not
representable, a range error may occur, and *exp*(), *expf*(), and
*expl*() shall return 0.0, or (if the IEC 60559 Floating-Point option
is not supported) an implementation-defined value no greater in magnitude
than DBL_MIN, FLT_MIN, and LDBL_MIN, respectively.

If *x* is NaN, a NaN shall be returned.

If *x* is ±0, 1 shall be returned.

If *x* is -Inf, +0 shall be returned.

If *x* is +Inf, *x* shall be returned.

If the correct value would cause underflow, and is representable, a range error may occur and the correct value shall be returned.

# ERRORS¶

These functions shall fail if:

- Range Error
- The result overflows.

If the integer expression (*math_errhandling* &
MATH_ERRNO) is non-zero, then *errno* shall be set to **[ERANGE]**.
If the integer expression (*math_errhandling* & MATH_ERREXCEPT) is
non-zero, then the overflow floating-point exception shall be raised.

These functions may fail if:

- Range Error
- The result underflows.

If the integer expression (*math_errhandling* &
MATH_ERRNO) is non-zero, then *errno* shall be set to **[ERANGE]**.
If the integer expression (*math_errhandling* & MATH_ERREXCEPT) is
non-zero, then the underflow floating-point exception shall be raised.

*The following sections are informative.*

# EXAMPLES¶

## Computing the Density of the Standard Normal Distribution¶

This function shows an implementation for the density of the
standard normal distribution using *exp*(). This example uses the
constant M_PI which is part of the XSI option.

#include <math.h>

double normal_density (double x) {

return exp(-x*x/2) / sqrt (2*M_PI); }

# APPLICATION USAGE¶

On error, the expressions (*math_errhandling* &
MATH_ERRNO) and (*math_errhandling* & MATH_ERREXCEPT) are
independent of each other, but at least one of them must be non-zero.

# RATIONALE¶

None.

# FUTURE DIRECTIONS¶

None.

# SEE ALSO¶

* feclearexcept()*,

*,*

*fetestexcept*()*,*

*isnan*()

*log*()The Base Definitions volume of POSIX.1‐2017, *Section
4.20*, *Treatment of Error Conditions for Mathematical Functions*,
**<math.h>**

# COPYRIGHT¶

Portions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form from IEEE Std 1003.1-2017, Standard for Information Technology -- Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 7, 2018 Edition, Copyright (C) 2018 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open Group. In the event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee document. The original Standard can be obtained online at http://www.opengroup.org/unix/online.html .

Any typographical or formatting errors that appear in this page are most likely to have been introduced during the conversion of the source files to man page format. To report such errors, see https://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/reporting_bugs.html .

2017 | IEEE/The Open Group |