std::transform(3)  C++ Standard Libary  std::transform(3) 
NAME¶
std::transform  std::transform
Synopsis¶
Defined in header <algorithm>
template< class InputIt,
class OutputIt,
class UnaryOperation >
OutputIt transform( InputIt first1, (until C++20)
InputIt last1,
OutputIt d_first,
UnaryOperation unary_op );
template< class InputIt,
class OutputIt,
class UnaryOperation >
constexpr OutputIt transform( InputIt first1, (since C++20)
InputIt last1,
OutputIt d_first,
UnaryOperation unary_op );
template< class ExecutionPolicy,
class ForwardIt1,
class ForwardIt2,
class UnaryOperation >
ForwardIt2 transform( ExecutionPolicy&& policy, (2) (since
C++17)
ForwardIt1 first1,
ForwardIt1 last1,
ForwardIt2 d_first,
UnaryOperation unary_op );
template< class InputIt1,
class InputIt2, (1)
class OutputIt,
class BinaryOperation >
OutputIt transform( InputIt1 first1, (until C++20)
InputIt1 last1,
InputIt2 first2,
OutputIt d_first,
BinaryOperation binary_op );
template< class InputIt1,
class InputIt2,
class OutputIt,
class BinaryOperation >
constexpr OutputIt transform( InputIt1 first1, (since C++20)
InputIt1 last1, (3)
InputIt2 first2,
OutputIt d_first,
BinaryOperation binary_op );
template< class ExecutionPolicy,
class ForwardIt1,
class ForwardIt2,
class ForwardIt3,
class BinaryOperation >
ForwardIt3 transform( ExecutionPolicy&& policy, (4) (since
C++17)
ForwardIt1 first1,
ForwardIt1 last1,
ForwardIt2 first2,
ForwardIt3 d_first,
BinaryOperation binary_op );
std::transform applies the given function to a range and stores the result in
another range, keeping the original elements order and beginning at
d_first.
1) The unary operation unary_op is applied to the range defined by [first1,
last1).
3) The binary operation binary_op is applied to pairs of elements from two
ranges:
one defined by [first1, last1) and the other beginning at first2.
2,4) Same as (1,3), but executed according to policy. These overloads do not
participate in overload resolution unless
std::is_execution_policy_v<std::decay_t<ExecutionPolicy>>
(until C++20)
std::is_execution_policy_v<std::remove_cvref_t<ExecutionPolicy>>
(since C++20) is true.
unary_op and binary_op must not have side effects. (until C++11)
unary_op and binary_op must not invalidate any iterators, including (since
C++11)
the end iterators, or modify any elements of the ranges involved.
Parameters¶
first1, last1  the first range of elements to transform
first2  the beginning of the second range of elements to transform
d_first  the beginning of the destination range, may be equal to first1 or
first2
policy  the execution policy to use. See execution policy for details.
unary operation function object that will be applied.
The signature of the function should be equivalent to the following:
Ret fun(const Type &a);
unary_op 
The signature does not need to have const &.
The type Type must be such that an object of type InputIt can be
dereferenced and then implicitly converted to Type. The type Ret
must be such that an object of type OutputIt can be dereferenced and
assigned a value of type Ret.
binary operation function object that will be applied.
The signature of the function should be equivalent to the following:
Ret fun(const Type1 &a, const Type2 &b);
binary_op 
The signature does not need to have const &.
The types Type1 and Type2 must be such that objects of types
InputIt1 and InputIt2 can be dereferenced and then implicitly
converted to Type1 and Type2 respectively. The type Ret must be such
that an object of type OutputIt can be dereferenced and assigned a
value of type Ret.
Type requirements¶

InputIt, InputIt1, InputIt2 must meet the requirements of
LegacyInputIterator.

OutputIt must meet the requirements of LegacyOutputIterator.

ForwardIt1, ForwardIt2, ForwardIt3 must meet the requirements of
LegacyForwardIterator.
Return value¶
Output iterator to the element past the last element transformed.
Complexity¶
12) Exactly std::distance(first1, last1) applications of
unary_op
34) Exactly std::distance(first1, last1) applications of binary_op
Exceptions¶
The overloads with a template parameter named ExecutionPolicy
report errors as
follows:
* If execution of a function invoked as part of the algorithm throws an
exception
and ExecutionPolicy is one of the standard policies, std::terminate is
called.
For any other ExecutionPolicy, the behavior is implementationdefined.
* If the algorithm fails to allocate memory, std::bad_alloc is thrown.
Possible implementation¶
First version¶
template< class InputIt,
class OutputIt,
class UnaryOperation >
OutputIt transform( InputIt first1,
InputIt last1,
OutputIt d_first,
UnaryOperation unary_op )
{
while (first1 != last1) {
*d_first++ = unary_op(*first1++);
}
return d_first;
}
Second version¶
template< class InputIt1,
class InputIt2,
class OutputIt,
class BinaryOperation >
OutputIt transform( InputIt1 first1,
InputIt1 last1,
InputIt2 first2,
OutputIt d_first,
BinaryOperation binary_op )
{
while (first1 != last1) {
*d_first++ = binary_op(*first1++, *first2++);
}
return d_first;
}
Notes¶
std::transform does not guarantee inorder application of
unary_op or binary_op. To
apply a function to a sequence inorder or to apply a function that modifies
the
elements of a sequence, use std::for_each.
Example¶
The following code uses transform to convert a string in place to
uppercase using
the std::toupper function and then transforms each char to its ordinal
value:
// Run this code
#include <algorithm>
#include <cctype>
#include <iomanip>
#include <iostream>
#include <string>
#include <vector>
int main()
{
std::string s{"hello"};
std::transform(s.cbegin(), s.cend(),
s.begin(), // write to the same location
[](unsigned char c) { return std::toupper(c); });
std::cout << "s = " << quoted(s) << '\n';
// achieving the same with std::for_each (see Notes above)
std::string g{"hello"};
std::for_each(g.begin(), g.end(), [](char& c) { // modify inplace
c = std::toupper(static_cast<unsigned char>(c));
});
std::cout << "g = " << quoted(g) << '\n';
std::vector<std::size_t> ordinals;
std::transform(s.cbegin(), s.cend(), std::back_inserter(ordinals),
[](unsigned char c) { return c; });
std::cout << "ordinals: ";
for (auto ord : ordinals) {
std::cout << ord << ' ';
}
std::transform(ordinals.cbegin(), ordinals.cend(), ordinals.cbegin(),
ordinals.begin(), std::plus<>{});
std::cout << "\nordinals: ";
for (auto ord : ordinals) {
std::cout << ord << ' ';
}
std::cout << '\n';
}
Output:¶
s = "HELLO"
g = "HELLO"
ordinals: 72 69 76 76 79
ordinals: 144 138 152 152 158
See also¶
for_each applies a function to a range of elements
(function template)
ranges::transform applies a function to a range of elements
(C++20) (niebloid)
2022.07.31  http://cppreference.com 